The Memoranda of Understanding between the United Kingdom and Spain facilitate cooperation at operational level between the competent authorities of Gibraltar and Spain, in particular through the use of joint committees in the areas of citizens` rights, the environment, police, customs and tobacco. If the EP approves the agreement by a simple majority, it must be "concluded" (ratified) by the EU by a highly qualified majority of the European Council of the remaining 27 Member States (20 from the other EU27 representing 65% of the EU27 population). Some EU food and agriculture rules continue to apply to NI during the backstop phase. . . .