National security concerns often prompt bilateral engagement, including S&T. In the early years of the post-Soviet era, science diplomacy focused on the demilitarization of scientific infrastructure and the diversion of former Soviet weapons researchers to peaceful, sensible and sustainable careers. The security problems of the last decade with Muslim extremism after the 11-11 motivated the engagement of Muslim-majority S&T. Between 2003 and 2008, the United States signed seven Ü&T agreements with Muslim-majority nations as part of the Bush administration`s strategy to combat the "war on terror." An S&T agreement can be a limited single outcome or be a launching pad for a significant engagement.